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December 02, 2011

Reward offered for N.J. whale shooter

   (UPI) -- Authorities are offering a $12,500 reward for information leading to the person who illegally shot and killed a pilot whale off the coast of New Jersey.

   The whale was found emaciated and dying earlier in the Fall in Allenhurst. The cause of death was initially unknown but Dr. Julie Engiles, an assistant professor of pathology at the University of Pennsylvania Veterinary School, discovered a bullet lodged in the animal's head during a necropsy, the Philadelphia Daily News.

    The .30-caliber bullet had bounced around inside the whale's head without killing it.

   "It basically starved to death because it was in too much pain to eat," said Bob Schoelkopf, founder of the Marine Mammal Stranding Center in Brigantine.

   Authorities said they believe the incident occurred too far offshore for the shooter to be on a recreational boat. Investigators have handed out fliers at marinas hoping to get someone within the fishing community to come forward with information.

   Paul Watson, of "Whale Wars" on the Discovery Channel, has personally donated $10,000 toward the reward, saying he believes the shooter probably viewed the whale as fishing competition.

   The punishment for intentionally killing a whale is as much as a year in prison and a $100,000 fine.

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?European CO budget and links with synoptic circulation based upon GEOS-CHEM design simulations European CO budget and links with synoptic circulation in accordance with GEOS-CHEM product simulations By ANNA P. PROTONOTARIOU 1 *. EFFIE KOSTOPOULOU two. MARIA TOMBROU 1 and CHRISTOS GIANNAKOPOULOS 3 ,  1 Division of Environmental Physics and Meteorology, Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Building up V, 157 84, Athens, Greece;  two Department of Geography, University for the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene, GR 81100, Greece;  3 Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Enhancement, National Observatory of Athens, V. Pavlou and Metaxa Str. GR-15236, Palaia Pendeli, Athens, Greece (Manuscript received 6 May 2012; in final sort eleven March 2013; published twenty five April 2013) The European carbon monoxide (CO) budget is studied in relation to the synoptic circulation throughout 2001, making use of the nested-grid configuration on the GEOS-CHEM worldwide product and CO measurements from 31 rural background stations. To meet the aims of this study, a seasonal circulation type (CT) classification is developed to the Northern Hemisphere depending on mean sea-level pressure (SLP) fields, at the same time as two upper atmospheric ranges, over a 60-yr period. The highest contribution to the European surface CO concentrations is attributed to regional anthropogenic resources (up to 80%), which become way more important beneath the prevalence of anticyclonic circulation conditions. The corresponding contribution in the long-range transport (LRT) from North America (up to 18%) and Asia (up to 20%) is found highest (lowest) in winter and spring (summer and autumn). The transport belonging to the CO towards Europe in winter is significantly more intense underneath cyclonic circulation, even when equally cyclonic and anticyclonic patterns favour LRT during other seasons. Occasionally (mainly in winter and spring), LRT contribution is higher than the regional a particular (up to 45%). From the zero cost troposphere, the LRT contribution increases, with the largest impact originating from Asia. This flow is favoured by the intense easterly circulation in summer, contributing up to 30% inside of the Eastern Mediterranean during this season. Over the other hand, the regional contribution inside the upper stages decreases to 22%. The contribution of CO chemical production is significant to the European CO budget by any means concentrations and seasons, exceeding 50% during the f-r-e-e troposphere during summer. Keywords: Europe, atmospheric circulation, carbon monoxide, long-range transport, intercontinental product To accessibility the supplementary material to this article, please see Supplementary data files underneath Article Instruments internet based. Tellus B 2013. © 2013 A. P. Protonotariou et al. This can be an Open Obtain article distributed beneath the terms from the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ ), permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original function is properly cited. Citation: Tellus B 2013, 65 . 18640, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.18640 1. Introduction The estimation of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations really is a complex problem, based strongly on fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass burning emissions, the oxidation of methane (CH four ) and non-methane volatile compounds (NMVOCs) and therefore the hydroxyl radical (OH) (Allen et al. 1996 ; Kanakidou et al. 1999 ; Holloway et al. 2000 ; Duncan and Logan, 2008 ). The atmospheric circulation also has a dominant role to the pollutant stages since several CO pollution events and large-scale horizontal gradients have been associated with the prevailing atmospheric conditions (Chung et al. 1999 ; Wang et al. 2004a ; Liu et al. 2006 ; Drori et al. 2012 ). Due to the CO lifetime on the troposphere (30–90 d), the pollutant can certainly be transported in continental scales through several pathways (Holloway et al. 2000 ; Li et al. 2002 ; Liu et al. 2003 ; Duncan and Bey, 2004 ; Huntrieser and Schlager, 2004 ; Liang et al. 2004 ; Weiss-Penzias et al. 2004 ; Auvray and Bey, 2005 ; Drori et al. 2012 ). The transatlantic long-range transport (LRT) is particularly favoured due to the relatively short distance around North America and Europe. The transport of air from North America towards Europe takes spot with the troposphere throughout the calendar year, following the general circulation over the North Atlantic (Wild and Akimoto, 2001 ; Stohl et al. 2003a. 2003b ). Around the lower troposphere (LT), these transport paths are determined by the strength also, the position for the Azores Large, in mixture with the Icelandic Affordable (Li et al. 2002 ; Auvray and Bey, 2005 ; Christoudias et al. 2012 ). Inside of the free of cost troposphere, the transatlantic LRT takes area when air masses from the North American surface are lifted to the upper amounts through mid-latitude cyclones and convection; then, the pollutants are transported towards Europe, governed primarily by the westerly circulation along with the jet streams (Stohl, 2001 ; Cooper et al. 2002 ; Li et al. 2002. 2005 ; Trickl et al. 2003 ; Huntrieser and Schlager, 2004 ). Similarly, the LRT from Asia towards Europe occurs throughout the yr when mid-latitude cyclones and deep convection lift the pollutants into the cost-free troposphere (Liu et al. 2003 ; Auvray and Bey, 2005 ). Another export pathway from Asia that directly affects Europe is observed from the close of May until the finish of August and is related having an upper easterly latest extending to the west across South Arabia and North Africa (Barry and Chorley, 2003 ; Auvray and Bey, 2005 ). As a result, the Asian pollution has frequently been detected not only while in the upper troposphere (UT) but also with the LT over the Eastern Mediterranean (Lelieveld et al. 2002 ; Lawrence et al. 2003 ; Roelofs et al. 2003 ; Scheeren et al. 2003 ; Traub et al. 2003 ; Drori et al. 2012 ). In the other hand, the transport from the rest in the world towards Europe isn't favoured due to the presence of your Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Some pollution of African origin is detected mostly on the Mediterranean region, despite the fact that transport from Australia and South America to Europe has rarely been reported (Stohl et al. 2002 ; Roelofs et al. 2003 ; Kallos et al. 2006. 2007 ). The combustion for the fossil fuels and therefore the biofuels in Asia, North America and Europe dominates the surface CO distribution within the Northern Hemisphere (NH) (Fig. 1. Table 1 ). The majority within the anthropogenic resources are located within a mid-latitude belt concerning 30°N and 65°N, where the population density as well as the anthropogenic activity are great (Schultz and Bey, 2004 ). Africa and South America represent the world regions with the highest biomass burning emissions globally. However, it should be noted that the biomass burning activity is huge also during the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe during the summer. Moreover, the CO chemical production by the oxidation of CH four and NMVOCs is likewise significant with the pollutant's concentration degrees in the troposphere. Table 1.  Longitude and latitude of source regions revealed in Fig. 1 and corresponding CO fossil fuel-biofuel/biomass burning emissions (Tg(CO)/yr) on seasonal basis in GEOS-CHEM as considered within this study The world chemical transport models (CTMs) have proved to be suitable instruments to reproduce the observed CO in prolonged scales (Kanakidou and Crutzen, 1999 ; Holloway et al. 2000 ; Tanimoto et al. 2009 ). Regarding the European domain, simulations belonging to the worldwide CTMs MOZART-2 (Pfister et al. 2004 ) and MATCH-MPIC (Fischer et al. 2006 ) revealed that the predominant contribution to the surface CO degrees over Europe is attributed to the regional emissions. In the contrary, it was found that most on the CO inside European middle troposphere (MT) and UT is transported from Asia and North America. These benefits are consistent with those of other studies that emphasised around the Eastern Mediterranean (Lelieveld et al. 2002 ; Lawrence et al. 2003 ; Drori et al. 2012 ). In order to track the CO origin, its molecules may very well be tagged according to the type as well as the location of its primary emission resources in addition to the chemical production. This tagging technique happens to be applied on the world CTM GEOS-CHEM (Bey et al. 2001a. 2001b ) and its nested-grid software also (Wang et al. 2004a. 2004b ). Previous studies have employed the nested-grid configuration of this product in several world regions this kind of as Asia (Wang et al. 2004a. b. 2009b ; Chen et al. 2009 ), North America (Fiore et al. 2005 ; Li et al. 2005 ; Park et al. 2006 ; Wang et al. 2009a ; Zhang et al. 2011 ) and Europe (Protonotariou et al. 2010 ). The nesting gains indicated that the representation within the pollutants improves in comparison to the intercontinental design, particularly for certain regions (e.g. excessive emission intensity, complex terrain) and time periods (e.g. pollution events). World simulations from the GEOS-CHEM design have previously been employed to study transport of O 3 and CO towards Europe (Li et al. 2002 ; Auvray and Bey, 2005 ; Guerova et al. 2006 ), but the European CO concentrations haven't systematically been studied in relation to the synoptic circulation. Inside the existing study, an analysis with the CO budget in the European troposphere in relation to the atmospheric circulation is carried out with the 1-yr period of 2001, dependant upon the nested-grid software of your GEOS-CHEM. To this aim, a a short while ago developed circulation-pattern classification scheme over the NH is presented along with the contribution of direct surface emissions from all continents additionally, the chemical production are estimated inside LT, the MT and then the UT during winter and summer of 2001 according to tagged CO simulations. Furthermore, dependant upon Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the LRT contribution towards Europe is examined in relation to the atmospheric circulation at three station sites, where the surface CO measurements are available in the market to the examined period (Air Level of quality Databases in the European Environmental Agency; http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/airbase-the-european-air-quality-database-1 ). two. Methodology two.1. The GEOS-CHEM product description GEOS-CHEM is a really three-dimensional world-wide atmospheric CTM (Bey et al. 2001b ) developed by the Atmospheric Chemistry Modelling Group of Harvard University (http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/ ). During this study, the nested-grid configuration of your model's version 07-01-02 is applied over Europe (Protonotariou et al. 2010 ). Assimilated meteorological details from the Goddard Earth Observing Procedure (GEOS) for the NASA World-wide Modelling and Assimilation Office (http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov ) are employed around the product, in accordance with a terrain-following sigma coordinate process with 30 vertical concentrations up to 0.01 hPa. Moreover, natural and anthropogenic emissions with no seasonal variation are included (Bey et al. 2001b ), introducing about 14% higher (lower) concentrations than the yearly mean in winter (summer) (Duncan and Bey, 2004 ). In this particular do the trick, the tagging technique is applied with the design, considering 16 CO tracers (Table two ). In order to apply the nested-grid configuration, initial a 2-yr (2000, 2001) worldwide simulation (4°×5° grid-resolution) is performed. As 1-yr spin up is suggested, hourly boundary conditions (BCs) are saved near the nesting domain of Europe (20°W–45°E, 22°N–74°N) during the second run-year. The BCs are then applied roughly the European domain for your nested-grid simulation (1°×1° grid-resolution). Table two.  CO tagged tracers considered in GEOS-CHEM according to emission resources, geographical regions and chemical production CO by methanol >> two.two. Classification of circulation variations While in the existing study, an automated map pattern classification is developed following the methodology by Kostopoulou and Jones (2007 ). The obtained circulation catalogue describes the main seasonal circulation variations (CTs) over the NH at sea degree pressure (SLP) and at selected concentrations (500 hPa, 200 hPa). Distinct synoptic patterns are produced over an extended European area, along with the atmospheric circulation is studied with a daily basis within the three atmospheric concentrations. The ‘environment-to-circulation’ tactic (Yarnal, 1993 ) is utilised to study the influence of atmospheric circulation over the CO concentrations over Europe for 1 yr. The classification scheme serves as a software to deliver the prevailing atmospheric circulation for every single working day with the study yr in order to assess the CO degrees as well as LRT contribution over Europe. Towards this purpose, each individual representative working day of calendar year 2001 is assigned to a person from the derived synoptic circulation patterns, together with the simulated daily CO concentrations are grouped influenced by the prevailing CTs. Similarly, the regional as well as the LRT contributions to the European CO budget are calculated for each and every working day belonging to the yr as well as final results are interpreted determined by the prevailing CTs. Table 3.  The main characteristics belonging to the seasonal circulation patterns at SLP Season of occurrence Prevailing pressure devices in NH Prevailing circulation over Europe Location of main pressure centre over Europe Icelandic Decreased, Azores Substantial, Siberian Great 1. Fennoscandia, two. United Kingdom, 3. Central Europe–Western Mediterranean, four. Iberian Peninsula, 5. Central–Eastern Europe, 6. Benelux, 7. Eastern Mediterranean–Eastern Europe Icelandic Decreased, Azores Great, Siberian Large 1. Scandinavia, two. Iceland, 3. Central Mediterranean, four. Western Ireland–United Kingdom, 5. Central–Eastern Europe, 6. North Sea, 7. Eastern Mediterranean Icelandic Small, Azores Huge, Siberian Higher 1. Fennoscandia–North-eastern Europe, two. Central Europe–Central Mediterranean, 3. Ireland–United Kingdom, four. Iceland, 5. Central–Eastern Europe, 6. Iberian Peninsula, 7. Eastern Europe–Eastern Mediterranean, 8. Benelux Icelandic Decreased, Azores Great, Siberian Very high 1. Scandinavia, two. Central Europe–Central Mediterranean, 3. Ireland–United Kingdom, four. Iceland, 5. Eastern Europe, 6. Iberian Peninsula, 7. Eastern Mediterranean, 8.North Sea-Western Scandinavia Azores Huge, Asian Thermal Minimal 1. Fennoscandia, two. Central–Western Europe, 3. Ireland–United Kingdom, four. Iceland, 5. South-eastern Europe, 6. North Atlantic–Iberian Peninsula, 7. Central–Eastern Europe, 8. North Sea–Benelux Azores Excessive, Asian Thermal Decreased 1. Scandinavia, two. Central Europe, 3. United Kingdom, four. Iceland, 5. South-eastern Europe, 6. South-eastern Europe–Iberian Peninsula, 7. Eastern Europe, 8. Western Scandinavia Icelandic Reduced, Azores Substantial Siberian Huge 1. Scandinavia, two. Central Europe, 3. United Kingdom, four. Iceland, 5. Eastern Europe, 6. Iberian Peninsula, 7. Eastern Mediterranean–Eastern Europe, 8. Benelux Icelandic Affordable, Azores Significant Siberian Significant 1. Scandinavia, two. Central Mediterranean–Central Europe, 3. United Kingdom, four. Iceland, 5. Eastern Europe, 6. Iberian Peninsula, 7. Eastern Mediterranean, 8. Western Scandinavia A good deal more specifically, gridded geopotential height reanalysis daily knowledge within the three degrees from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR; Kalnay et al. 1996 ; Kistler et al. 2001 ) are put to use as inputs to the synoptic map pattern classifications. The spatial coverage is two.5° in latitude by two.5° in longitude, providing a world wide grid of 144×73 points (90°N–90°S, 0°E–357.5°E). As this study emphasises about the prevailing NH circulation patterns using a special interest over the European territory, 60-yr daily knowledge from 1947 to 2007 are utilised for a region covering most with the NH (0°N–70°N, 90°W–90°E). The initially step towards the circulation classification is accomplished employing an eigenvector-based technique. A rotated PCA (Wilks, 1995 ) is carried out (S-mode, implementing the correlation matrix), which decreases the amount belonging to the original knowledge to the smaller selection of principal elements (PCs). Each and every PC features a positive in addition to a negative phase equally representing atmospheric classification modes. Correspondingly, 50 percent from the circulation patterns are associated which has a prominent anticyclonic centre (denoted by ‘+’) and therefore the remaining 50 % along with a cyclonic centre (denoted by ‘−’), which govern the atmospheric conditions over the study region. Finally, every working day for the original facts is assigned to 1 mode according to the absolute maximum component scores. The methodology adopted to determine the map-pattern classification is described in greater depth in Kostopoulou and Jones (2007 ). Table four.  Contribution (%) belonging to the CO resources to the European CO concentrations at surface, 500 hPa and 200 hPa in winter and summer of 2001 two.3. Observations for that design evaluation On this study, measurements of CO concentrations during 2001 from 31 rural background stations, located in Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Switzerland and also Netherlands (Fig. two a), are employed. Moreover, a PCA is applied with daily mean averages in the CO-modelled concentrations from the 31 stations for your study calendar year, in order to classify the stations into groups with normal characteristics. As a result, the original facts dimension is reduced into a smaller selection of PCs (Protonotariou et al. 2010 ). The PCA yielded three PCs (PC1, PC2, PC3), accounting for 80% with the total variance as suggested by the literature (Jolliffe, 1993 ). It is found that every single PC component defines a sub-region (Fig. two b and Appendix S1 ) with popular characteristics in relation to emission intensity, topographical elements and geographical position. A lot more specifically, the earliest sub-region (PC1, capturing 33.7% from the total variance with the original dataset) comes with the stations located on the north-western part within the examined area. This station area, characterised by flat terrain and lower altitudes, is close to formidable anthropogenic resources. As a result, the mean emission rate is significantly significant (up to 50% higher than one other two sub-regions). Within the second sub-region (PC2, which explains 24.8% on the total variance), the stations are located inside the southern part of your study region. This station area, located in a lengthy distance from the major anthropogenic resources, is characterised by complex topography including a mean altitude of 400 m. The third sub-region (PC3, accounting for 22.6% for the total variance) contains stations located during the eastern part with the examined area, with lower background emissions in comparison to one other two groups and at similar mean altitude with PC2. For every PC region, the LRT contribution is calculated on an once-a-year plus a seasonal basis additionally, the circulation patterns that favour the transport paths are investigated. Fig. 1 .   World wide CO anthropogenic surface emissions (in molec/cm two /s). Black boxes depict the geographical regions considered in GEOS-CHEM tagged CO analysis; 1: Europe, two: North America, 3: Asia, four: Africa, 5: South America, 6: Oceania. Fig. two .   a) European domain (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/topo/globegal.html#continents ) where the 31 rural background stations are located. b) PC1, PC2 and PC3 station regions in Europe. Table 5.  Yearly contribution (%) of CO FFEU . CO FFNA . CO FFAS . CO FFRW and LRT (sum of CO FFNA . CO FFAS and CO FFRW ) to CO budget on the three station regions (PCs) in 2001 Statistical parameters on the observed (O) together with the estimated (ES) by the nested-grid simulation of GEOS-CHEM mean monthly CO concentrations in Europe are also presented. Statistical parameters equations are often found in Appendix S5 . 3. Good results and discussion 3.1. Circulation patterns’ analysis In order to minimise the potential influences of seasonality and to produce a detailed analysis on the atmospheric circulation schemes in each and every season, the PCA of your circulation patterns is undertaken on the seasonal basis (Table 3 ). Fourteen CTs represent the atmospheric circulation at SLP over the NH in winter (December, January, February), declared by the acronym W_CTi (Winter Circulation Type, where i=±1,7 denotes the corresponding PC selection). Sixteen CTs (i=±1,8) are associated with the main modes of atmospheric circulation in just about every within the next three seasons, which is, in spring (March, April, May, SP_CTi), summer (June, July, August, SU_CTi) and autumn (September, October, November, A_CTi). Correspondingly, 12 CTs are obtained that represent the atmospheric circulation at 500 hPa in winter (W 500 _CTi, i=±1,6) and autumn (A 500 _CTi, i=±1,6) and 16 in spring (SP 500 _CTi, i=±1,8) and summer (SU 500 _CTi, i=±1,8). Regarding the 200 hPa subject, 12 CTs are recognised given that the dominant circulation patterns for winter and summer (W 200 _CTi and SU 200 _CTi; i=±1,6), and ten CTs for spring and autumn (SP 200 _CTi as well as a 200 _CTi; i=±1,5). A schematic representation from the main CTs in the three degrees is given in Appendix S2. The reliability from the classification is assessed by comparing the derived CT lessons with daily synoptic charts of atmospheric circulation (at SLP additionally, the two upper concentrations), implementing statistical analysis and visible comparison with NCAR/NCEP daily mean composites (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/composites/day/ ). Table 6.  Percentage contribution (%) of CO FFNA . CO FFAS and their sum (CO FFLRT ) in winter at each and every PC sub-region in relation to the frequency of occurrence (FO) with the circulation patterns in percentage (%) 3.two. The CO budget at surface The CO surface concentrations over Europe are mainly driven by the regional anthropogenic emissions, which contribute up to 79 and 68% to the European CO degrees at mid-latitudes in North Europe during winter and summer, respectively (Table four and Appendix S3, Fig. S3-1a, b, Appendix S4, Fig. S4-1 ). Furthermore, the CO accumulation close to the surface is related to the prevalence of frequent anticyclonic circulation patterns over Europe during the two seasons (e.g. W_CT1+, SU_CT7+, Fig. 3 a). Within the contrary, the CO FFEU contribution within the southern latitudes in winter does not exceed 35% (Fig. S4-1a ), as being the regional emissions in South Europe are lower than those in Northern Europe. Moreover, the prevailing anticyclonic circulation patterns during the cold period (e.g. W_CT1+, W_CT2+, W_CT7+) do not favour transport from the highly polluted North European regions towards the south. However, the European contribution to Southern Europe increases during summer locally, mainly over sea, exceeding 40% (Fig. S4-1b ). These superior CO concentrations are related with the transport in the pollutant from North to South Europe beneath the prevalence of familiar summer CTs (e.g. SU_CT7±). The CO concentrations are lower over the land owing to the deep mixing height during this season. Fig. 3 .   Frequency of occurrence of CTs in winter and summer of 2001 in a) SLP, b) 500 hPa, c) 200 hPa. The CO production from the regional biomass burning is evident only during the warm period (not demonstrated), contributing up to 34 and 20% to the pollutant's local concentrations in Eastern and Southern Europe, respectively. Particularly in Greece, the prevailing northerly/northeasterly Etesian winds during summer favour the CO transport from the Northern and Eastern Europe beneath the prevalence of representative summer flow patterns (e.g. SU_CT7+). Through this transport path enhanced CO concentrations from the burning of agricultural residences in Eastern Europe have been transported towards Greece in August 2001 (Lelieveld et al. 2002 ; Balis et al. 2003 ; Salisbury et al. 2003 ; Tombrou et al. 2009 ). The impact from the North American anthropogenic emissions to the European surface CO concentrations is considerably more profound in winter (Fig. S4-2a ). The CO FFNA contribution is higher within the western part in the European continent involving 35°N and 45°N (up to 18%), where air masses are channelled underneath the prevalence of most anticyclonic and cyclonic patterns during this season (W_CT1−, W_CT2−, W_CT3+, W_CT4+, W_CT5±, W_CT6±, W_CT7±). Several of these patterns (W_CT4+, W_CT5−, W_CT6±) also favour CO FFNA to be transported towards the Mediterranean region. In summer (Fig. S4-2b ), the CO FFNA contribution is weaker (up to 12%), attributed to the lower anthropogenic emissions in North America during this season. Moreover, the less organised atmospheric circulation in summer does not favour this transport path. In particular, the LRT takes position mainly towards the northern/northwestern parts of Europe, given that the westerly winds over the North Atlantic turn to southwesterly for most from the summer CTs (e.g. SU_CT7+). To the other hand, the largest contribution on the Asian anthropogenic tracer is apparent relating to the eastern borders within the European domain in winter (34%, Fig. S4-3a ) given that the prevailing circulation patterns (e.g. W_CT1+) do not favour the intrusion further into the European continent. The CO FFAS contribution is usually pronounced in the western/south-western parts of Europe in winter (up to 20%) and during the Eastern Mediterranean in summer (up to 15%), attributed to the westerly circulation as well as extension on the Asian thermal Small over the Aegean Sea, respectively. The North American plus the Asian biomass burning contributions are found up to 5% (not proven), due to decreased fire activity in 2001 (EC, 2002 ; Kasischke et al. 2005 ; Yurganov et al. 2005 ; Huang et al. 2009 ). The contribution belonging to the anthropogenic resources from the rest from the world to the European CO surface concentrations is negligible (not revealed), mainly since the northeastly Trade winds and also the ITCZ prevent the air intrusion from the Southern Hemisphere (SH) into the NH. Similarly, although the fire intensity within the SH contributes significantly to the world wide CO budget (Table 1 ), this kind of signals are not transmitted towards Europe. Very minimal contributions within the North African anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions (up to 5%) are observed in winter (not demonstrated), if the atmospheric conditions favour this transport path (e.g. W_CT6+). The methane oxidation is the largest chemical production procedure of CO. The highest contribution is found with the southern regions where the solar radiation is intense, reaching 22 and 32% in winter and summer, respectively (not demonstrated). Moreover, CO CH4 is enhanced for the superior northern latitudes in summer, attributed to the increased CH four production while in the permanent ice-covered regions during this season. Among the NMVOCs, the isoprene oxidation contributes the highest CO concentrations (up to 18% within the densely vegetated eastern parts of Europe in summer), as it consists a lot more than 40% of their total emissions (Miyoshi et al. 1994 ; Paulot et al. 2009 ). Similarly, the CO production by other NMVOCs (monoterpenes, methanol, acetone) is highest in summer (up to eleven, 6 and 2%, respectively), attributed to the huge temperatures in addition to the increased solar radiation that enhance the photochemical activity during this season. Table 7.  Percentage contribution (%) of CO FFNA . CO FFAS and their sum (CO FFLRT ) in spring at every single PC sub-region in relation to the frequency of occurrence (FO) for the circulation patterns in percentage (%) 3.3. The CO budget at rural background stations in Europe In order to further investigate the LRT contribution to the European CO concentrations at SLP, a much more detailed examination is performed based upon the PC analysis. To this aim, the yearly LRT contribution from every single continent's anthropogenic emissions (CO FFNA . CO FFAS and CO FFRW ) also as their total sum is presented for that three PC station regions, together with the regional (CO FFEU ) contribution (Table 5. Fig. four ). On an once-a-year basis, the LRT contributions to the three PC regions are found comparable. A slightly higher contribution is evident in PC2 and PC3, partly attributed to the fact that these sub-regions, which are characterised by relatively lower regional emissions, locate at big altitudes, where the LRT contribution increases. Moreover, a statistical analysis is in addition presented for that three PC regions. It is found that the product adequately simulates the observations in any way regions. The leading operation is achieved in PC1 (Mean Observation, M O =217.8 ppbv; Mean Bias, MB=−four.1 ppbv; Mean Error, ME=32.9 ppbv; correlation coefficient, R two =0.83), attributed to the fact that this region is characterised by flat terrain, which is effectively depicted by the product. The largest bias and error are found in PC2 (M O =208.four ppbv, MB=−28.0 ppbv, ME=49.1 ppbv, R two =0.57 ppbv), because the representation from the complex topography on the model's coarse grid is probably not sufficient. Fig. four .   Time series within the mean daily concentrations of CO measurements (black squares) and modelled concentrations of CO total (red line) and CO FFEU (green line) while in the left axis and LRT (sum of CO FFNA . CO FFAS and CO FFRW . purple line) concentrations inside right axis in 2001 in a) PC1, b) PC2, c) PC3. In order to define the atmospheric conditions that favour the LRT towards the study regions, the analysis is extended with a seasonal basis. To this aim, the contribution within the anthropogenic emissions belonging to the major continental resources (North America and Asia) to the total CO concentration, in addition as their sum (CO FFLRT ), is calculated in percentage (x /CO total ] *100, where x=CO FFNA or CO FFAS ) at every single PC region. This analysis is performed in relation to the prevailing circulation patterns with a seasonal basis, together with their frequency of occurrence during the study yr (Tables 6 –9 ). Moreover, in order to assess how nicely the source contributions are linked to the CTs, the standard deviation within the North American and Asian contributions appears to have been calculated for all CTs (not proven). It should be noted that the circulation patterns depict the general characteristics for the atmospheric circulation and they do not represent the real wind direction and velocity (or pressure values), which in turn determine the source contribution to the study area. Therefore, it is expected that there will be some variability while in the successes. In most cases nevertheless, it was found that the LRT contribution is satisfactorily linked with most within the circulation patterns, with the standard deviation from the source contributions estimated somewhere between four and eleven.8% belonging to the contribution itself. Table 9.  Percentage contribution (%) of CO FFNA . CO FFAS and their sum (CO FFLRT ) in autumn at each individual PC sub-region in relation to the frequency of occurrence (FO) in the circulation patterns in percentage (%) 3.3.1. Winter. The LRT contribution over the surface CO concentrations within the three PC regions during winter reaches 30%, with the Asian contribution (18.1%) being higher than the North American contribution (12.8%) below all CTs (Table 6 ). The highest CO FFLRT contribution is found in PC3 (29.6%) beneath the prevalence from the cyclonic pattern W_CT5−. This CT with relatively decreased frequency of occurrence in 2001 (FO: 5.6%, Table 6 ) is associated with the extension within the Azores Substantial over the Western Mediterranean and also formation of the deep reduced eastwards to PC3. Below these conditions, the southwesterly winds over the North Atlantic turn southeastwards before arriving to the study area. Similarly, the LRT contribution in PC1 is highest (28.6%) underneath the prevalence in the same cyclonic pattern, exceeding up to 10% the regional contribution on some days (Fig. four a). As Table 6 shows, the LRT towards PC1 and PC3 is most intensive mainly when cyclonic circulation prevails over Europe during winter. However, it should be mentioned that enhanced LRT contribution (28.1%) are also able to occur underneath the prevalence belonging to the less frequent anticyclonic type W_CT4+ (FO: two.2%), formed if the well-organised Azores Big extends northeastwards, reaching the study regions. The highest LRT contribution in PC2 (27.7%) is observed beneath the prevalence on the cyclonic circulation type W_CT2−. This relatively frequent pattern (FO: 8.9%) is associated with westerly winds over the North Atlantic that channel the air masses towards the study area. This flow is established in the event the well-organised deep Icelandic Lower and also Azores Higher are formed northwestwards and southwestwards of PC2, respectively. Underneath the prevalence of this circulation pattern, the LRT contribution in PC2 can exceed by up to 21.8% the regional a person (Fig. four b). Moreover, the LRT contribution exceeds the regional an individual by up to 45.9% beneath the cyclonic pattern W_CT4−, when a deep reduced develops westwards of PC2. Less than these conditions, winds over the North Atlantic shift from northwesterly to southwesterly before arriving to the study area. 3.3.two. Spring. The CO FFLRT contribution in spring (31.1%) is on the same degree as in winter. Similarly to winter, the Asian contribution (19.2%) is higher in comparison to the North American (13.5%) for all CTs (Table 7 ). In particular, the highest LRT contribution is accumulated in PC2 beneath the prevalence on the anticyclonic pattern SP_CT6+. This less frequent CT in 2001 (FO: two.2%) is associated with the formation from the deep Azores Significant southwestwards of PC2. Less than these conditions, the prevailing southwesterly winds over the North Atlantic turn to northwesterlies before arriving in the PC2 region. With this case, the CO FFLRT contribution can exceed the CO FFEU contribution by up to 36% (Fig. four b). Moreover, the LRT contribution tend to be up to 45% higher than the regional a particular beneath the prevalence for the a bit more frequent cyclonic patterns SP_CT1−, SP_CT3− and SP_CT4− (FO: 6.5, 15.two and 6.5%, respectively). Less than these conditions, the deep Icelandic Reduced also, the Azores Large are formed north/northwestwards and southwestwards of PC2 respectively, inducing westerly winds towards the study area. The largest LRT accumulation in PC1 (27.8%) and PC3 (twenty five.4%) takes position underneath the prevalence for the cyclonic patterns SP_CT2− (FO: 7.6%) and SP_CT7− (FO: 1.1%). These CTs are related with the formation of the small pressure centre over the Mediterranean, which combined with the significant pressures westwards of PC1 and PC3, induces northerly and southwesterly winds, respectively, towards these areas. Moreover, it is noticed that the CO FFLRT contribution in PC3 exceeds by up to 14.6% the CO FFEU ranges (Fig. four c) underneath the prevalence of SP_CT4+ (FO: 15.2%) and SP_CT6− (FO: 12%). 3.3.3. Summer. The LRT contribution in summer (up to 22.1%) is lower than in winter and spring. Within this case, the Asian contribution (12.9%) is higher in comparison to the North American contribution (ten.4%) for most CTs (Table 8 ). The largest contribution is observed in PC1 beneath the prevalence within the anticyclonic pattern SU_CT3+. This relatively frequent type (FO: 7.6%) is associated with the extension of your deep Azores Significant over Western Europe, steering the southwesterly winds over the North Atlantic southeastwards before arriving to the area. Underneath these atmospheric conditions, the LRT contribution in PC1 and PC2 can exceed the regional just one (up to 8 and 16.8%, respectively, Fig. four a, b). Similarly, the highest contribution in PC3 (19.2%) is observed underneath the same anticyclonic pattern. Enhanced LRT contributions in PC3 (18.3%) and PC1 (21%) are also observed beneath the cyclonic patterns SU_CT1− and SU_CT8− respectively. Moreover, the highest LRT contribution in PC2 (20.6%) is found underneath the latter CT. Below these conditions, the formation of the minimal pressure centre to the north plus a huge pressure strategy from the North Atlantic induces northwesterly winds towards the study area. A contribution of 20% can be observed in PC2 underneath the anticyclonic patterns SU_CT3+ and SU_CT4+. 3.3.four. Autumn. The LRT contribution in autumn is evidently lower than in winter and spring (and slightly lower than in summer). Moreover, contrary to the opposite seasons, the North American contribution is higher in comparison to the Asian for most CTs (Table 9 ). The highest LRT (19.9%) and CO FFNA contributions (ten.9%) are found in PC1 underneath A_CT1− (FO: 8.8%). This cyclonic pattern is associated with the formation of the deep cyclonic centre over Scandinavia, extending northwards over the study area. The blend of this application with the very high pressure southwards establishes westerly winds towards PC1. Enhanced LRT contribution (19.6%) can also be observed in PC1 underneath the highly frequent anticyclonic pattern A_CT3+ (FO: 19.8%). Similarly, the highest LRT contribution in PC3 (18.6%) occurs underneath the same anticyclonic and cyclonic patterns. The highest LRT contribution in PC2 (18.8%) is found beneath the A_CT5+ (FO: 7.7%). This anticyclonic circulation pattern is associated having an extended well-organised superior pressure process over Europe. Additionally, the LRT contribution in PC2 becomes important (up to 17.8%) underneath the a little more frequent A_CT7+ and A_CT8− patterns (FO: 11%). Only very few LRT exceedances are observed in autumn 2001, with CO FFLRT being higher by up to 5.4% than CO FFEU (Fig. four b) mainly underneath the prevalence of A_CT1− and A_CT8−. 3.four. The CO budget during the no cost troposphere (MT and UT) The CO concentrations within the upper amounts over Europe are significantly lower than those over the surface, decreasing by up to 70% over highly polluted regions (Fig. S3-1c to f ). The CO concentrations inside of the MT during winter (Fig. S1-1c ) increase from south (up to 110 ppbv) to north (up to 130 ppbv). This latitudinal distribution is attributed to the longer CO photochemical lifetime (due to the lower solar radiation) and to some a good deal more intense LRT beneath the prevalence of frequent winter CTs (e.g. W 500 _CT1±, Fig. 3 b). The computed summer degrees are in general lower than 100 ppbv (Fig. S3-1d ). However, higher concentrations are calculated in Eastern Europe due to potent convection. This well-known upward flow over this region (Duncan and Bey, 2004 ) is usually evident from probably the most frequent summer CTs at SLP (Fig. 3 a). The CO concentrations at 200 hPa are in general lower than 100 ppbv, except over Eastern Europe where they might be supported by the convective mixing (Fig. S3-1e, f ). The chemical production is the major source of CO during the completely free troposphere (not revealed), exceeding 50% around the UT during summer (Table four ). Moreover, the LRT while in the MT/UT is a little more profound than inside the LT. The largest contribution originates from Asia, reaching 25% in Western Europe and at higher latitudes in winter (Fig. S6-3a, c ). This distribution reflects the transport paths followed by the pollutant beneath the influence from the prevailing winter CTs during the MT (e.g. W 500 _CT1±, Fig. 3 b) and UT (W 200 _CT5±, Fig. 3 c). In summer, CO FFAS on the MT/UT (Fig. S6-3b, d ) is in general lower than in winter. However, higher contributions are observed within the UT over the Eastern Mediterranean ( 30%), when a ridge extends over the greater area (e.g. SU 200 _CT1+). These conditions build easterly winds that transfer CO FFAS towards the Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa. The North American contribution is higher at very high latitudes inside MT during winter (up to 18%, Fig. S6-2a ). Moreover, the CO FFNA contribution from the UT reaches 14% over the Iberian Peninsula together with the Western Mediterranean during summer (Fig. S6-2d ). This distribution is favoured by the westerly/southwesterly circulation that may be established beneath the influence in the prevailing CTs at these heights (e.g. SU 500 _CT3−, SU 500 _CT5−, SU 200 _CT1+, SU 200 _CT2+). The anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions signals from Africa are detected only with the southern parts (up to 6%, not revealed) when a ridge over the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa transfers the air masses towards Southern Europe (W 200 _CT3+, W 200 _CT5+). Within the contrary, the impact from the regional anthropogenic resources decreases significantly, contributing up to 18 and 10% while in the MT and also UT during winter, respectively (Fig. S6-1 ). However, as currently mentioned, there are some regions over Eastern Europe, where CO FFEU reaches 22% from the UT due to robust convection in summer. Similarly to the surface, some differences are found among GEOS-CHEM and MOZART-2 outcome at 500 hPa and 200 hPa. Moreover, the contribution from the anthropogenic emissions (along with the chemistry production) in GEOS-CHEM is up to 20% higher (lower) than MATCH-MPIC effects over Western Europe in MT (Fischer et al. 2006 ). These discrepancies are attributed to the world wide models’ configurations (i.e. grid resolution, emission inventories, OH concentrations). four. Conclusions Around the current study, the European CO budget was examined in relation to the prevailing atmospheric conditions in 2001, dependant upon the nested-grid simulations for the GEOS-CHEM world wide design. To this aim, a seasonal CT classification was developed with the NH within the SLP and two atmospheric amounts on the MT plus the UT, over a 60-yr period. It was found that the regional anthropogenic emissions have significant impacts within the European CO concentrations within the LT, contributing to the surface CO budget up to 80%, reckoning on the season additionally, the atmospheric conditions. Particularly in winter, the anticyclonic circulation patterns over Europe favoured the pollutant's accumulation close to the resources. In summer, the prevailing northerly winds favoured the pollutant's transport of anthropogenic or biomass burning origins from Northern and Eastern Europe southwards, increasing the CO ranges in Southern Europe. The transport of your anthropogenic pollution from North America and Asia towards the European LT was favoured by the westerly circulation, contributing up to 18–20% each and every to the CO surface concentrations over Europe in winter. Relating to the contrary, the less organised atmospheric circulation in summer, in conjunction with the lower anthropogenic emissions, constrained these contributions to 12–15% during this season. The Asian plus the North American contributions at three regions in Europe, where CO measurements have been accessible at 31 rural background stations for that study calendar year, have been found highest (lowest) in winter and spring (summer and autumn). In winter, the LRT at SLP was intense mainly beneath the prevalence of cyclonic circulation patterns. During another seasons, the pollutant's transport towards Europe was enhanced for several cyclonic and anticyclonic patterns. The Asian tracer contribution was found higher than the North American in winter, spring and summer underneath most CTs (but lower in autumn). Events where the LRT contribution is higher than the regional one particular by up to 45% had been detected whatsoever station sites mainly in winter and spring. The LRT contribution increased around the 100 % free troposphere, with the Asian anthropogenic sources’ contribution being higher than the North American in most cases. In particular, the Asian tracer reached 30% over the Eastern Mediterranean inside the UT during summer, favoured by the prevailing easterlies. With the MT, this contribution was 25% during winter in Western Europe and at higher latitudes, reflecting the transport pathways followed by the pollutant beneath the influence belonging to the prevailing winds. Similarly, the North American contribution was highest during winter (summer) with the MT (UT) for the western parts in the continent, reaching 18% (14%). Over the other hand, no significant amount of CO originated from the remaining parts of your world. Lower biomass burning signals from Africa were being detected over Southern Europe during the UT (6%). The regional anthropogenic emissions’ contribution around the no cost troposphere was lower than the surface, contributing 18% (10%) from the MT (UT). However, higher regional contribution was found over Eastern Europe in summer (22%) due to solid convection. 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Res. 109 (D23), D23S14. DOI: ten.1029/2004JD004505. Publisher Extensive Textual content Wild, O. and Akimoto, H. 2001. Intercontinental transport of ozone and its precursors in a very three dimensional world CTM. J. Geophys. Res. 106 . 27729–27744. Publisher Complete Textual content Wilks, D. S. 1995. Statistical Methods while in the Atmospheric Sciences: An Introduction . Academic push, San Diego, CA, 467 pp. Yarnal, B. 1993. Synoptic Climatology in Environmental Analysis . 1st ed. Belhaven, London, 195 pp. Yurganov, L. N. Duchatelet, P. Dzhola, A. V. Edwards, D. P. Hase, F. and co-authors. 2005. Increased Northern Hemispheric carbon monoxide burden on the troposphere in 2002 and 2003 detected from the ground and from place. Atmos. Chem. Phys . 5 . 563–573. Publisher Extensive Textual content Zhang, L. Jacob, D. J. Downey, N. V. Wood, D. A. Blewitt, D. and co-authors. 2011. Improved estimate in the policy-relevant background ozone with the United States making use of the GEOS-Chem international design with 1/2°×2/3° horizontal resolution over North America. Atmos. Environ . 45 (37), 6769–6776. DOI: ten.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.07.054. Publisher Extensive Textual content About The Authors Anna P. Protonotariou University of Athens, Department of Physics, Division of Environmental Physics and Meteorology Greece Effie Kostopoulou University from the Aegean, Department of Geography, University Hill, Mytilene GR 81100, Greece Greece Maria Tombrou University of Athens, Department of Physics, Division of Environmental Physics and Meteorology Greece Christos Giannakopoulos Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Progress, National Observatory of Athens, V.Pavlou and Metaxa Str. GR-15236 Palaia Pendeli, Athens, Greece. Greece custom research papers

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